Archive for the ‘Windows FTP’ Category

How to Format an External Hard Drive

Thursday, April 17th, 2014


Formatting a hard drive or flash drive will erase the contents and set up a file structure so that it can be accessed on your computer. You might need to format if you get a drive that isn’t compatible with your computer. Follow these steps to format your external for any operating system.

Method 1: Windows:

1. Open Computer Management.

o Click on the Start button and right-click on Computer or My Computer.
o Select Manage from the right-click menu.


Windows 8 Users can skip directly to the Disk Management utility by pressing the Windows and X keys on the keyboard. This will open the Power Users menu. Select Disk Management from this menu.

2. Select Disk Management.

o This is located in the left frame, listed underneath Storage.
o When you click Disk Management, your connected drives will be displayed in the center frame.


3. Right-click the drive you want to format.

o From the right-click menu, select Format.
o Enter a name for the drive.

4. Select the File System.

o From NTFS is the standard for Windows computers, and if you are only using the drive with Windows, you should pick this. If you are planning on using the drive on both Windows and Mac, select exFAT.
o Do not select “Perform a quick format” as it will not efficiently erase all the previous data.

5. Click OK.

o You will be asked to confirm. After confirmation, your drive will begin formatting. The length of time required depends on the size.


Method 2: Mac OS X

1. Connect your external hard drive. You can connect your drive through USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt. Depending on whether or not it is formatted already, your drive may appear on the desktop. You can ignore it for the moment.
2. Open Disk Utility. You can get to the Disk Utility in the Utilities folder under Applications.
3. Select the external drive. You can see a list of your connected drives in the left frame of Disk Utility. Click the drive.
4. Click the Erase tab. From the Format menu, select “Mac OS Extended”. Enter a name for the drive. You can change this name at any time.
5. Click Erase. A window will open asking you to confirm. After confirmation, the format process will begin. The time it will take is dependent on the size of your drive. Larger drives take longer to format.

Method 3: Linux

1. Install GParted. This is a free utility available on all Linux distributions. You can install it by opening the Terminal and typing “sudo apt-get install gparted ntfsprogs”.
2. Connect your disk drive. Linux should mount the drive automatically. You will need to unmount it before you can format. Right click on the disk icon on your desktop and click “Unmount volume.”
3. Open the Partition Editor. This can be found in System/Administration. Click the drive selection box in the top-right of the window and select the external drive from the list.
4. Format the drive. Right-click the drive in the main window.  Select “Format to” and then select the format that you want to make the drive. NTFS can be read in Windows, Fat32 can be read in any operating system, and ext3 is Linux only.

How to Skip the Login Screen on Windows 8 or 8.1

Wednesday, April 16th, 2014

Basic instructions

1. From the desktop, open the Run box by pressing Windows Logo+R keys together.

2. Type in netplwiz and click OK button to highlight your account.

Type “netplwiz” and click OK

3. On the Users tab from the opened Advanced User Accounts program, uncheck the box next to Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer.

4. Click Apply and OK button at the bottom of the window.

Uncheck the checkbox and click Apply

5. From the automatically sign in box, enter your User Name and then your Password twice you wish to automatically login to Windows 8 or 8.1 with.


Enter your Username and Password and click OK

6. Finally click OK button [The Automatically sign in window, as well as the User Accounts window, will now close].

7. Restart your computer. And you have successfully enabled automatic sign-in and from now on, you won’t see the login screen but redirected to the Start Screen instead.

8. The login screen is not skipped successful that is if the wrong user name is entered in Step 5 above. Double check that what you enter here is actually your user name and not just the name associated with your account.


List of Common Network Problems

Tuesday, April 15th, 2014

Many problems of your system may be network-related. Some of the most common network problems are as follows:

Cable Problem:

Cables that connect different parts of a network can be cut or shorted. A short can happen when the wire conductor comes in contact with another conductive surface, changing the path of the signal. Cable testers can be used to test for many types of cable problems such as:

o Cut cable
o Incorrect cable connections
o Cable shorts
o Interference level
o Connector Problem

Connectivity Problem:

A connectivity problem with one or more devices in a network can occur after a change is made in configuration or by a malfunction of a connectivity component, such as:

o Hub
o A router or a Switch

Excessive Network Collisions:

These often lead to slow connectivity. The problem can occur one of the following reasons:

o Bad network setup/plan
o A user transferring a lot of information or jabbering network card

Note: A jabbering Network card is a network card that is stuck in a transmit mode. This will be evident because the transmit light will remain on constantly, indicating that the Network card is always transmitting.

Software Problem:

Network problems can often be traced to software configuration such as:

o DNS configuration
o WINS configuration
o The Registry, etc.

Duplicate IP Addressing:

A common problem in many networking environments occurs when two machines try to use the same IP address. This can result in intermittent communications.

NIC Problem:

Network problem of another one is NIC settings mismatch. On large networks this problem can exist on 20% to 30% the network nodes, and with a concerted effort can be brought under control. Taken into context, the impact is much larger than expected because many of the systems are distributed and require the collaboration of multiple nodes and servers to function correctly.

Even a small system has a minimum reliance of 10 network nodes and if 2 or 3 of them are not functioning correctly it influences the whole system. Left unchecked and unmanagement the NIC problem could influence and undermine all your systems.

How to Delete a File in Use in Windows?

Monday, April 14th, 2014


When a file is classified as “in use” by Windows, it is typically still opened by another process that is or could be making changes to it. Typically though this doesn’t tend to be the case. . If the file is displayed as “in use” but there’s no indication of a program whatsoever, you have two options to proceed: You can either use the handy tool Unlocker, which integrates itself into the Windows UI seamlessly, or delete or rename files over the command prompt without any third party software.

Delete a File in Use in Windows:

There are two methods:

1. Using Unlocker in Windows
2. Using Command Prompt in windows


Using Unlocker in Windows:

When using a computer is when you want to delete or rename a file or folder in Windows, but gets an error stating that it is open, shared, in use, or locked by a program currently using it. You start to shut down every program running on the computer hoping that you will be lucky and are able to delete the file, but it still won’t delete. This method provides that will allow you to delete or remove practically any file in Windows.

The most comfortable method of finding out which program is using particular files is offered by the freeware Unlocker. Download the tool and install it. This will give you an additional entry in the context menu called “Unlocker” that allows you to get an overview of all the processes that are currently trying to access this file. Choose an operation from the drop-down menu and click on “Unlock all” to close all so-called “Handles” that are blocking access to the file and to apply your operation of choice.

When attempting to delete or rename a file or folder you should follow these steps in the following order:

Ø  Shut down any programs that may be currently using that file.

When a program is using a file it tends to exclusively lock that file so it can’t be modified or renamed while it’s in use. By shutting down the program using it, you unlock that file or folder so that you can work with it.

Ø  Reboot your computer.

When you reboot your computer, this will shut down any open programs and hopefully on reboot allow you to work with the file in question.

Ø  Reboot into safe mode and try to rename or delete the folder.

When you are in safe mode a limited number of programs start up automatically. This provides a greater chance of being able to rename or delete a stubborn file or folder.

Ø  Download a file unlocking utility.

File unlocking programs will find the processes that are using the file and attempt to close them or disconnect their connection to the file or folder so they can be deleted, renamed, or otherwise manipulated.

Using Command Prompt in Windows:

1. Open Folder Options, then uncheck the Hide extensions for known file types box, and click on OK button.

2. Open a command prompt in Windows.

3. In the command prompt, type the command, press Enter.


DEL /F /S /Q /A “C:\Users\UserName\Desktop\File.txt”

4. The file(s) should now be deleted.

5. Close the command prompt.


Common Mistakes You Can Avoid While Using Your Computer

Sunday, April 13th, 2014

Like installing free software that is suspicious, backing up data…

Install unwanted Free Softwares and Offers that are suspicious:

Some pre-installed applications are bad and some you may have no use and others may even turn out to be sub-standard and slow down your computer. Checking your PC for each item you didn’t ask for will probably take you a while. For this, PC Decrapifier application helps you identify unwanted junk. Once you can run the wizard it shows you a checklist with recommendations and tick the programs, icons and start-up items that don’t want and then click the Next button as shown in the screenshot below.

Everyone loves free things. Free software is often ad-supported and in many cases the installer comes bundled with additional products or ad-ware, which can slow down your computer. So, anytime you download a free Windows application, you must do a custom install. And several other kinds of software that are alternatively offered or forced when installing free software and these can include several different types of software.

And another type of unwanted software are browsers, it could be easily modified and include unwanted piece of functionality that does something you don’t want, like monitor your activity or steal personal information. If you want a new browser, it is much safer to go directly to the source, and if you decided you preferred Firefox or Chrome to Internet Explorer to accept what comes bundled with other software.

Also, several varieties of trial software are also often offered. And these include games which may require an additional purchase to continue playing, or offers of security solutions. This latter option can be particularly risky to install, especially if you already have other security in place. Having two security solutions in place, with the same kind of functionality being offered, can lead to conflicts and computer crashes. Just like with browsers, it is better to make an informed choice and download and install security solutions from their official webpage, instead of using what comes bundled with other software.

Then finally, some software may ask or require you to sign your email up for spam, change your homepage to their website, or even buy into other promotions in order to enjoy the product for free.


Backing up data:

There are many reasons for data loss and some of the most common are: accidental deletion, hard disk damage or failure, viruses, power disruption and improper shutdown.

Also, please avoid the following common mistakes for backing up data.

o Save your work
o Close applications
o Configure new file types
o Update backup sets
o Rescue disk
o Database exports
o Check backup media
o Check log files
o Verify recent backup data
o Store backup media offsite during absence
o Critical data should be backed up 2 ways
o Run Error Check on the C: drive

Too Much Disk Defragmentation

Most people don’t need to defragment their hard disk manually. And you should only defragment your hard drive if it is 5-10% fragmented.


Not Restarting the Computer

Rebooting is considered a cure-all of sorts that fixes a ton of problems. So try to reboot and see if that solves the problem.


Viruses, Trojans, and Adware

Another one of those problems that can be a risk with any new software download. Having solid anti-virus software on your computer is a must for this.



Transfer Commands for Sysax FTP Scripting

Saturday, April 12th, 2014


There are two file transfer commands that are used with Sysax FTP Scripting.

o  ftpdownload

o  ftpupload

The ftpdownload command can be used to download either an individual file or an entire folder tree. The files and folders are downloaded to the current local working path. The ftpupload command can be used to upload either an individual file or an entire folder tree. The files and folders are uploaded to the current remote working path.

Obtaining folder listings:

The contents of a folder can be listed and stored into a user specified list name. Each item in the list can then be individually accessed. The ftpgetlist command can be used to obtain a listing of the current working path. The predefined keywords local or remote are used to specify either the local or remote system. The recurse level determines the number of levels of subfolders that need to be listed. If no recurse level is specified, it is set to 1 by default and lists only the top level files and folders in the current working path.

Syntax for obtaining folder listings

ftpgetlist <keywords: local, remote>, <list name>, <recurse level>;



Example of using the command for setting paths

ftpgetlist local, @local_list; #get the listing of the 
current local working path
ftpgetlist remote, @remote_list; #get the listing of the 
current remote working path
ftpgetlist remote, @remote_list, 0; #get recursive listing of the 
current remote working path
ftpgetlist remote, @remote_list, 3; #get up to 3 levels of 
listings of the current remote working path



Transferring files and folders:


For this command, the predefined keywords file and folder are used to specify either a file or a folder. An optional local name string can be provided to save the downloaded item to a new name.

Syntax for downloading files and folders

ftpdownload <keywords: file, folder>, <remote name string>
 [, optional: <local name string>];



Examples of downloading files and folders

ftpdownload file, "text.dat"; #download file

ftpdownload file, "*.doc"; #download all files in the current 
folder matching the pattern *.doc

ftpdownload file, "text.dat", "text_0503.dat"; 
#download file and save as text_0503.dat

ftpdownload folder, "www"; #download entire folder tree




For this command, the predefined keywords file and folder are used to specify either a file or a folder. An optional remote name string can be provided to save the uploaded item to a new name.

Syntax for uploading files and folders

ftpupload <keywords: file, folder>, <local name string>
 [, optional: <remote name string>];



Examples of uploading files and folders

ftpupload file, " out_text.dat"; #upload file

ftpupload file, "*.doc"; #upload all files in the current
 folder matching the pattern *.doc

ftpupload file, " out_text.dat", "out_text_0503.dat";
 #upload file and saving it as out_text_0503.dat

ftpupload folder, "www"; #upload entire folder tree



Modification time for remote file:

The ftpmodtime command can be used to get the modification time for the remote file in YYYYMMDDHHmmss format.

Syntax for modification time of a remote file

ftpmodtime <user variable>, <filename>;



Examples of modification time of a remote file

ftpmodtime ~remotefiletime, "remotefile.txt"; #get the modification 
time for remote file remotefile.txt


Corrupted User Profile in Windows 7

Friday, April 11th, 2014

What is this, how does it show:

Your user profile is a collection of settings that make the computer look and work the way you want it to. It contains your settings for desktop backgrounds, screen savers, pointer preferences, sound settings, and other features. User profiles ensure that your personal preferences are used whenever you log on to Windows. If you tried to log on to Windows and received an error message telling you that your user profile might be corrupted, you can try to repair it. You will need to create a new profile, and then copy the files from the existing profile to the new one.

In Windows 7, it is very common that we come across corrupt user profiles. There are many solutions and tricks for us to fix it. Here we offer 2 ways to fix corrupt user profile. We will see the error message “The user profile cannot be loaded” or “The User Profile Service failed the logon” if we type the password and press Enter.

Fix the corrupt profile:

One of the reasons that cause corrupt profile is that antivirus software is scanning your PC while you try to log on. But there are still some other reasons. No matter for what reasons, we can fix it. First restart your PC and boot into safe mode. Do this by pressing F8 before you see the Windows loading screen and choosing Safe Mode from the menu that appears. Safe Mode logs you into the built-in Windows administrator account, but you might find that some options don’t work.

Step 1: Click Start and type regedit into the search box and press Enter.

Step 2: Registry Editor will launch and you need to navigate to the following key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList

Step 3: Try to find out which user account it relates to by clicking each S-1-5 folder and double-click the ProfileImagePath entry.

Step 4:  If you have located the folder for the corrupt profile, double-click RefCount and change the Value data to 0 and click Ok.

Step 5: Double-click on State, then make sure the Value data is again 0 and click Ok.


How it can be managed:

Create a new user profile:

You are able to create a new user account if you have another account which can access to this PC. Otherwise you need to boot into safe mode as the Trick 1. Then try to do as the following steps. In additional, you have to enable the hidden admin account if neither of them works. Then type cmd in the search box and right-click on Command Prompt. Choose Run as administrator.

Type “net user administrator /active:yes” at the prompt. You can see the response show that: The command completed successfully. Reboot to your PC and see your corrupt account and administrator account. Login the admin account (which has no password) and do as the following:

Step 1: Open Control Panel and click User Accounts and Family Safety

Step 2: Click on User Accounts. Then click Manage another account and type in the password

Step 3: Click create a new account and type the name.

Step 4: Restart your PC.

Copy User Files to the New Profile:

Step 5: It is better for you to log in as Administrator or if you need to transfer files properly. So enable one of them if you haven’t already done so.

Step 6: By clicking Start, Computer and then double-clicking on the hard drive on which Windows is installed, you can navigate to the corrupt user account. Usually c: – and then double-click on the Users folder. Find the folder containing your old user account and double-click it, then double-click My Documents.

Step 7:  It’s best to copy across the contents of sub-folders separately, and this gives you a chance to have a clear out as well. If you do want to copy the entire contents in one go, enable hidden files and folders and then make sure you DON’T copy across the following files:




You can click the Tools menu (press Alt if you can’t see it), to make these files visible. Then click the View tab and click Show hidden files, folders and drives. Be sure that any email stored locally may need to be copied separately using instructions specific to your email program. So please don’t delete the corrupt user profile until you are sure you have all the files you need from it.

Step 8: When all the files are copied across to the newly created user profile, restart your computer and log onto the new profile.

If you found this article helpful, please share it with your friends and family. Who knows, maybe they are facing this problem and need help to solve.

Encryption Algorithms: AES and RSA Encryption

Thursday, April 10th, 2014

What is AES?

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an encryption algorithm for securing sensitive but unclassified material by U.S. Government agencies and, as a likely consequence, may eventually become the de facto encryption standard for commercial transactions in the private sector. In January of 1997, a process was initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a unit of the U.S. Commerce Department, to find a more robust replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and to a lesser degree Triple DES.  The algorithm was required to be royalty-free for use worldwide and offer security of a sufficient level to protect data for the next 20 to 30 years. The specification called for a symmetric algorithm (same key for encryption and decryption) using block encryption 128 bits in size, supporting key sizes of 128, 192 and 256 bits, as a minimum.

What is RSA?

RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is an Internet encryption and authentication system that uses an algorithm developed in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. The RSA algorithm is the most commonly used encryption and authentication algorithm and is included as part of the Web browsers from Microsoft and Netscape. It’s also part of Lotus Notes, Intuit’s Quicken, and many other products. The encryption system is owned by RSA Security. The company licenses the algorithm technologies and also sells development kits. The technologies are part of existing or proposed Web, Internet, and computing standards. Both the public and the private keys are needed for encryption / decryption but only the owner of a private key ever needs to know it. Using the RSA system, the private key never needs to be sent across the Internet.

Comparison between AES and RSA:

Comparing the two directly is a little like comparing a tractor to a train – they’re both vehicles but have completely different function and construction. In the table below a comparative study between AES and RSA is presented in to eighteen factors, which are Key Size, Block Size, Ciphering & Deciphering key, Scalability, Algorithm, Encryption, Decryption, Power Consumption, Security, Deposit of keys, Inherent Vulnerabilities, Key used, Rounds, Stimulation Speed, Trojan Horse, Hardware & Software Implementation and Ciphering & Deciphering Algorithm.





1997 1977

Key Size

128, 192, 256 bits >1024 bits

Block Size

126 bits Minimum 512 bits

Ciphering & deciphering key

Same Different


Not Scalable Not Scalable


Symmetric Algorithm Asymmetric Algorithm


Faster Slower


Faster Slower


Excellent Secured Least Secure

Deposit of keys

Needed Needed

Key Used

Same key used for Encrypt and decrypt Different  key used for Encrypt and decrypt

Simulation Speed

Faster Faster

Hardware & Software Implementation

Faster Not Efficient

Ciphering & Deciphering


Different Different


10/12/14 1

Trojan Horse

Not proved No

Power Consumption

Low High

Inherent Vulnerabilities

Brute Forced Attack Brute Forced and Oracle attack

Google Docs: The Better Microsoft Office?

Wednesday, April 9th, 2014

Microsoft Office

When it comes to office automation, the first thing that comes to mind is Microsoft Office. One cannot imagine a Windows-based computer without a local copy of Word, Excel and PowerPoint. The history of MS Office starts officially on November 19, 1990 when Office for Windows (also called MS Office 1.0) came out for use with Windows 2.0. Prior to Office 1.0, the basic elements of the package were still available as separate programs but for MS-DOS. The primary input devices for pre Windows Microsoft Word were keyboards. Though they have many good features, formatting and printing requires good expertise.

Here’s our list of top 10 features that the new Office has to offer.

o Touch everywhere
o Inking
o Apps
o Skydive
o New subscription services
o Stay connected
o Skype
o Reading, markup
o Digital note-taking
o Meetings

Google Docs

Google Docs is a freeware web-based office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service. It also was a storage service but it has been replaced by Drive. It allows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating with other users live. It combines the features of Writely and Spreadsheets with a presentation program incorporating technology designed by Tonic Systems.

-  Storage

With the launch of Google Docs, 1 GB of storage was included for free.

-  File limits

Individual documents may not exceed 1 GB as of 13 January 2010, embedded images must not exceed 2 MB each, and spreadsheets are limited to 256 columns, 400,000 cells, and 200 sheets.

-  Supported file formats

Users can upload files of any format. Google Docs supports 15 file formats for viewing. [.DOC and .DOCX,.DOC and .DOCX, .PPT and .PPTX, .PDF, .PAGES, .AI, .PSD, .TIFF, .DXF, .SVG, .EPS & .PS, .TTF & .OTF, .XPS, .ZIP and .RAR, WebM & .MPEG4 & .3GPP & .MOV & .AVI & .MPEGPS & .WMV & .FLV & .ogg].



Google Docs is a good alternative to Microsoft Office.  Here are the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Microsoft Office


o Each program in the suite is very powerful, and contains advanced features for formatting and data management.
o MS-Office is a standard set of applications used by many organizations.
o File size is only limited by the amount of drive storage space available on the individual user’s computer.


o MS-Office is licensed per machine, and may not be available on home computers.
o Compatibility issues may arise between MS-Office versions.
o Files can be stored in different locations, but there can be multiple copies of the same file leading to questions as to which version is current.
o Files can be opened by only one person at a time, restricting collaboration.

Google Docs


o Cloud-based, meaning that the applications and documents are available on any device with an internet connection, including smart phones.
o Can read and write MS-Office files.
o Multiple users can access a document at once, allowing for sophisticated collaboration.
o Documents can be published and viewed online into other web pages.
o All document changes are saved, and all previous versions are accessible.
o Users can create advanced forms and surveys.


o Must have Internet access to use – not currently available offline.
o Does not have some of the advanced functions of MS-Office, including Mail Merge, advanced printing, etc.
o Formatting is not as easy as in MS-Office.
o Does not have a direct print function. Documents must be downloaded as a PDF then printed locally.
o Does not have a database such as MS-Access.
o File size is restricted to 2 MB, with a limit of 25 GB combined with Gmail.

What are GIF, PNG, JPG, TIFF, JPEG and a BMP files?

Tuesday, April 8th, 2014

GIF file:

GIF images are truly the internet standard for any type of small, simple file. GIF stands for Graphics Interchange Format. The most common use for a GIF is for menu buttons or icons for a webpage. The reason being that gif are extremely tiny in file size and have no complex colors, so they load almost instantly on any webpage. Also, any other file which is made up of only use a few basic, flat colors will want to use GIF compression.

PNG file:

PNG (Portable Network Graphics) (1996) is a bitmap image format that employs lossless data compression. PNG was created to both improve upon and replace the GIF format with an image file format that does not require a patent license to use. PNG supports palette based grayscale and RGB images.

JPG or JPEG file:

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) files are a lossy format; the DOS filename extension is JPG (other OS might use JPEG). Nearly every digital camera can save images in the JPEG format, which supports 8 bits per for a 24-bit total, producing relatively small files. When not too great, the compression does not noticeably detract from the image’s quality, but JPEG files suffer generational degradation when repeatedly edited and saved.

TIFF file:

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) file format has not been updated since 1992 and is now owned by Adobe. It can store an image and data in the one file. TIFF can be compressed, but it is rather its ability to store image data in a lossless format that makes a TIFF file a useful image archive, because unlike standard JPEG files, a TIFF file using lossless compression may be edited and re-saved without losing image quality.

BMP file:

BMP (Bitmap) was probably the first type of digital image format that I can remember. Every picture on a computer seemed those days to be a BMP. In Windows XP the Paint program saves its images automatically in BMP. However, in Windows Vista and later images are now saved to JPEG.