Archive for the ‘Windows FTP’ Category

20 Tips Every Windows Administrator Should Know

Monday, March 24th, 2014

The longer a person serves as a network admin, the more tips and tricks they are likely to pick up along the way. Some could be shortcuts, others might seem like magic, but all are intended to save you time and help you solve problems. Assume that all of these Windows commands should be run from an administrative command prompt if you are using Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 2008.


Active Directory

1. To quickly list all the groups in your domain, with members, run this command:
dsquery group -limit 0 | dsget group -members –expand

2. To find all users whose accounts are set to have a non-expiring password, run this command:
dsquery * domainroot -filter “(&(objectcategory=person)(objectclass=user)(lockoutTime=*))” -limit 0

3. To refresh group policy settings, run this command:

4. To check Active Directory replication on a domain controller, run this command:
repadmin /replsummary

5. To force replication from a domain controller without having to go through to Active Directory Sites and Services, run this command:
repadmin /syncall

6. To see what server authenticated you (or if you logged on with cached credentials) you can run either of these commands:
set l
echo %logonserver%

7. To see what account you are logged on as, run this command:

8. To see what security groups you belong to, run this command:
whoami /groups

9. To see the domain account policy (password requirements, lockout thresholds, etc.) run this command:
net accounts


Windows Networking

10. To quickly reset your NIC back to DHCP with no manual settings, run this command:
netsh int ip reset all

11. To quickly generate a text summary of your system, run this command:
systeminfo | more

12. To see all network connections your client has open, run this command:
net use

13. To see your routing table, run either of these commands:
route print
netstat -r

14. To add an entry to your routing table that will be permanent, run the route add command with the –p option. Omitting that, the entry will be lost at next reboot:
route add mask –p

15. You can use the shutdown to shutdown or reboot a machine, including your own, in a simple scheduled task like this:
shutdown –r –t 0 –m \\localhost


Windows 7

16. Want to enable the local administrator account on Windows 7? Run this command from an administrative command prompt. It will prompt you to set a password:
net user administrator * /active:yes


Windows 2008

17. Windows Key+G: Display gadgets in front of other windows.

18. Windows Key++ (plus key): Zoom in, where appropriate.

19. Windows Key+- (minus key): Zoom out, where appropriate.

20. You can see all the open files on a system by running this command:
openfiles /query

Windows 7 Crashes: How to Fix it?

Sunday, March 23rd, 2014

Why does this happen?

Windows became more stable as it matured. And, while the operating system has gone from 16-bit to 32-bit and now 64-bit, the features have become more extravagant, and the footprint much larger – it is actually harder to bring down. Still, it does fall over. However, the reasons for such system failures have not changed from the XP days. Windows takes advantage of a protection mechanism that lets multiple applications run at the same time without stepping all over each other. Windows takes advantage of a protection mechanism that lets multiple applications run at the same time without stepping all over each other. Known now as User Mode and Kernel Mode, it was originally known as the Ring Protection scheme.

o Kernel Mode

Kernel Mode (Ring 0) software has complete and unfettered access to the hardware. Software operating here is normally the most trusted because it can execute any instruction and reference any address in the system. Crashes in Kernel Mode are complete system failures requiring a reboot. This is where you find the operating system kernel code and most drivers.

o User Mode

User Mode (Ring 3) software cannot directly access the hardware or reference any address freely. It must pass instructions – perhaps more accurately requests – through calls to APIs. This feature enables protection for the overall operation of the system, regardless of whether an application makes an erroneous call or accesses an inappropriate address. Crashes in User Mode are generally recoverable, requiring a restart of the application but not the entire system. This is where you find most of the code running on your computer ranging from Word to Solitaire and some drivers.

So with much of the software running in User Mode these days, there is simply less opportunity for applications to corrupt system-level software and, for that matter, each other. However, kernel-mode software is not protected from other kernel-mode software. For example, if a video driver erroneously accesses a portion of memory assigned to another program (or memory not marked as accessible to drivers) Windows will stop the entire system. This is known as a Bug Check and the familiar Blue Screen of Death is displayed.

Tips for fixing it:

o Getting Started: System Requirements

To prepare to solve Windows 7 system crashes using WinDbg you will need a PC with the following:

–  32-bit or 64-bit Windows 7/Vista/XP or Windows Server 2008/2003

–  Approximately 25MB of hard disk space (this does not include storage for dump files or for symbol files)

–  Live Internet connection

–  Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 or later

–  The latest version of WinDbg comes as an option in the Windows SDK. The SDK download file is called winsdk_web.exe, is 498KB in size, and can be downloaded for free. (Note that after installing the debugger you can delete the large download file thus freeing up lots of space.)

–  A memory dump (the page file must be on C: for Windows to save the memory dump file)

Windows 7 vs. Windows 8 Keyboard Shortcuts

Saturday, March 22nd, 2014


In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a set of one or several keys that invoke a software or operating system operation when triggered by the user. Keyboard shortcuts are typically a means for invoking one or more commands using the keyboard that would otherwise be accessible only through a menu, a pointing device, different levels of a user interface, or via a command-line interface. Keyboard shortcuts are generally used to expedite common operations by reducing input sequences to a few keystrokes, hence the term “shortcut”.


Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows 7 & Windows 8:

Windows 7

Windows 8

Win+Arrow Down  :  Set window to Restored  or Minimized Win+ArrowDown : Minimized Window or set Window to Restored
Win+Arrow Up  :  Maximize window Win+Arrow Up  :  Maximize Window across screen
Win+Shift+Arrow Down/ Win+Shift+Arrow Up  :  Maximize Restored window vertically/Restore window to previous state Ctrl+Tab  :  On Start Screen: Switch Between Start Window  and All Apps Window
Win+Arrow Right/Win+Arrow Left  :  Move Restored window to left/center/right Win  :  Toggle between Desktop and Start screen 
Alt+Space  :  Opens the title bar menu Escape  :  Close Start Screen and go to Desktop
Alt+Space+Enter  :  Restore Window Win+X  :  Open power user Commands on desktop
Alt+Space+x  :  Maximize Window Win+W  :  Search Windows Settings
Alt+Space+n  :  Minimize Window Alt+F4  :  Shutdown Windows
F11  :  Turn full page view on or off F11  :  Turn full page view on or off
Win+e  :  Start Windows Explorer Win+E  :  Run Explorer on Desktop
Win+r  :  Open the Run window Win+R  :  Execute Run on Desktop
Win+f  :  Open Windows Search Win+C  :  Open Windows Charme
Win+L  :  Lock the keyboard/ computer Win+F  :  Search Files
Win+F1  :  Displays Windows Help Win+F1  :  Open Windows Help
Win+p  :  Choose Presentation Display Mode Win+X,T  :  Task Manager
Win+x  :  Open Mobility Center Win+X,E  :  File Explorer (alternative: Win+e)
Tab/Shift+Tab  :  Move forward/move backwards through options Win+X,R  :  Run (alternative: Win+r)
Ctrl+Tab/Ctrl+Shift+Tab  :  Move forward/move backwards through tabs Win+X,K  :  Disk Management
Ctrl+c  :  Copy Ctrl+c  :  Copy
Ctrl+x  :  Cut Ctrl+x  :  Cut
Ctrl+v  :  Paste Ctrl+v  :  Paste
Ctrl+z   :  Undo an action Ctrl+z   :  Undo an action
Ctrl+y  :  Redo an action Ctrl+y  :  Redo an action
Ctrl+n  :  Open new instance of Windows Explorer  Ctrl+n  :  Open new instance of Windows Explorer 
Delete  :  Delete an item and place it into the Recycle Bin Delete  :  Delete an item and place it into the Recycle Bin
Shift+Delete  :  Delete an item permanently without placing it into the Recycle Bin Shift+Delete  :  Delete an item permanently without placing it into the Recycle Bin
Alt+Enter  :  Open Properties dialog box Alt+Enter  :  Open Properties dialog box
F2   :  Change the file name of active item F2   :  Change the file name of active item

How to Make a Test for Hardware Failure?

Friday, March 21st, 2014

Hardware Failure:

A hardware failure is a fault within the electromechanical components or electronic circuits of a computer system. Revival from a hardware malfunction requires replacement or repair of the affected part for the computer or equipment to operate again.


What should be checked?

o Computer hard drive (HDD)

A bad hard drive can cause an assortment of different issues on your computer. Below are just a few of the possible issues you may encounter. It is important to remember that the below issues can also be caused by more than just a bad disk drive.

1. Errors when reading, copying, moving or deleting data on the computer.
2. Extremely slow.
3. Operating system unable to boot.
4. Other random errors or computer reboots.


o Computer memory (RAM)

Bad memory can cause an assortment of different issues on your computer. Below are just a few of the possible issues you may encounter. It is important to remember that the below issues can also be caused by more than just bad memory.

1. Computer does not boot, instead you get a beep code. See the POST and beep code page for additional information about beep codes.
2. Random computer crashes causing BSOD, General Protection Fault error messages, Illegal Operations, Fatal Exceptions, etc.
3. Computer random reboots.
4. Installing Windows or another program fails.


o Computer motherboard & processor (CPU)

A bad computer motherboard or CPU can cause an assortment of different issues on your computer. Below are just a few of the possible issues you may encounter. It is important to remember that the issues below can also be caused by more than just a bad motherboard and CPU.

1. Computer does not boot, instead you get a beep code. See the POST and beep code page for additional information about beep codes.
2. Random computer crashes causing General Protection Fault error messages, Illegal Operations, Fatal Exceptions, etc.
3. Computer randomly reboots.


o Computer power supply (PSU)

There are methods of testing the power connectors on a power supply using a multimeter.  However, because of the potential damage that can be caused to the power supply, potentially the motherboard and other components connected to it, this information is not posted on Computer Hope. We suggest users who believe their power supply is failing or is already bad, replace it.


o Computer CD/DVD disc drives

A bad disc drive can cause an assortment of different issues on your computer. Below are just a few of the possible issues you may encounter. It is important to remember that the issues described below can also be caused by more than just a bad disc drive.

1. Error when reading CD or DVD.
2. CD’s or DVD’s may not play or play audio or video properly.
3. CD or DVD programs may not install or encounter errors after being installed.

8 Simple Things You Can Do to Protect Your Business Data

Thursday, March 20th, 2014

However, today’s hackers hack for the same reason their peers in traditional thievery steal: to steal money from someone. Sometimes they work alone, often they work in online gangs (or hacker groups or rings), and a growing number of them are backed by governments. Here are eight simple things you can do to protect your business data:

1. Conduct a security audit.

It is critical that you work with a professional to audit your entire IT infrastructure computers, network, and mobile devices to determine what you need to do to prevent hackers from accessing your network.

2. Make staff aware of the important role they play in security.

Your staff is your front line of defense when it comes to security. Sure, hackers can access your network remotely and siphon off data without setting foot in your office. However, vigilant employees can ensure that human error which is a big cause of data security breaches is mineralized.

3. Use strong and multiple passwords.

Too many of us use simple passwords that are easy for hackers to guess. When we have complicated passwords, a simple “dictionary attack” an attack by a hacker using an automated tool that uses a combination of dictionary words and numbers to crack passwords can’t happen. Don’t write passwords down; commit them to memory.

4. Encrypt your data.

Encryption is a great security tool to use in case your data is stolen. For example, if your hard disk is stolen or you lose your USB thumb drive, whoever accesses the data won’t be able to read it if it’s encrypted.

5. Back up.

Security is important, but if your data is not backed up, you WILL LOSE IT. Ensure that your data is properly backed up, and test the backup to ensure that your data can be recovered when you need it.

6. Have security policies.

Its one thing to ask employees to work securely, but you must also have clear and simple policies in place for them to follow to ensure that they are working in a secure environment.

7. Protect your mobile work force.

With the proliferation of the BlackBerry, iPhone, and other mobile devices, more of your staff is working away from the office and away from the protection of your network security. It is important to ensure that their mobile technology, often connected wirelessly, is as secure as possible.

8. Implement a multiple-security-technology solution.

Viruses that corrupt data are not the only security threat. Hackers, and their attacks, are more sophisticated than ever, and it is critical to have multiple layers of security technology on all your different devices (including each desktop, mobile device, file server, mail server) to comprehensively secure your data.

Securing your business’s data is not easy, and it takes expertise. One of the most important things you can do is to educate your employees in security best practices and ensure that they know how important their role is in securing business data.

Guide to Windows Server 8

Wednesday, March 19th, 2014

Basic things every system administrator should know about Windows 8

Windows 8 has been with us for well over a year now, and if you’re used to previous versions of Windows then you’re going to notice that quite a bit has changed. In fact, Windows 8 has seen the biggest change since the jump from Windows 3.1 to Windows 95. Out goes the Start menu, in comes the new touch-oriented Start screen with new Windows 8-style apps and new interface conventions.

Some most important guide of Windows 8 is as follows:

1. Open from the lock screen:

Windows 8 opens on its lock screen, which looks pretty but unfortunately displays no clues about what to do next. Just tap the space bar, spin the mouse wheel or swipe upwards on a touch screen to reveal a regular login screen with the user name you created during installation. Enter your password to begin.

2. Handle basic navigation:

Windows 8’s interface is all colourful tiles and touch-friendly apps. And if you’re using a tablet then it’ll all be very straightforward: just swipe left or right to scroll the screen, and tap any tile of interest. On a regular desktop, though, you might alternatively spin the mouse wheel to scroll backwards and forwards. And you can also use the keyboard. Press the Home or End keys to jump from one end of your Start screen to the other.

3. Group apps:

The Start screen apps are initially displayed in a fairly random order, but if you’d prefer a more organized life then it’s easy to sort them into custom groups. You might drag People, Mail, Messaging and Calendar over to the left-hand side, for instance, to form a separate ‘People’ group.

4. Use the quick access menu:

Right-click in the bottom-left corner for a text-based menu that provides easy access to lots of useful applets and features: Device Manager, Control Panel, Explorer, the Search dialog and more. Download the Win+X Menu Editor and you’ll be able to further customize the list with programs of your own.

5. Find your applications:

The Win+X menu is useful, but is not a substitute for the old Start menu as it doesn’t provide access to your applications. Press Ctrl+Tab, click the arrow button at the bottom left of the Start Screen, or swipe up from the bottom of the screen and a list of your installed programs will appear.

6. Make access easier:

If there’s an application you use all the time then you don’t have to access it via the search system. Pin it to the Start screen and it’ll be available at a click. Start by typing part of the name of your application. To access Control Panel, for instance, type ‘Control’. Right-click the ‘Control Panel’ tile on the Apps Search screen, and click ‘Pin to Start’.

7. Shut down:

To shut Windows 8 down, just move the mouse cursor to the bottom right corner of the screen, click the Settings icon – or just hold down the Windows key and press I – and you’ll see a power button. Click this and choose ‘Shut Down’ or ‘Restart’.

Top 10 Tools for Windows Administrators

Tuesday, March 18th, 2014

List of some interesting tools and their description

For most medium and small businesses, at least in the U.S. Windows is their operating system of choice, both as servers and workstations. Having a bit of experience managing Windows Networks, I found these to be my top ten choices:

1.   Process Explorer:

Process Explorer, developed by Sysinternals (who later on was bought by no other than Microsoft) is a very useful expansion of the Windows Task Manager. Finally, the Process Explorer is so simple that there is no need for installation.

2.   Cygwin:

Cygwin is essentially a port of the Linux command line environment to Windows. It blurs the Windows and Linux Universes to the point where you can run DOS and Bash commands on the same virtual console.

3.   Python/Visual Basic/Shell scripting:

OK, fine, this is not an application, but knowing Python, Visual Basic, and shell scripting has saved me hours in automated tasks that would have otherwise taken too long and killed too many braincells to perform manually.

4.   UltraVNC:

The best VNC Server/Client out there, period. If tried most of them, including RealVNC, TightVNC, or Remote Administrator. UltraVNC I found is the fastest, most complete, and easiest to use of the lot. They even have a standalone client and a standalone server that do not need to be installed.

5.   Partition Magic/Gparted:

Gparted is not technically a Windows application, but it saved my life when a user’s hard drive started to fail and I had to copy its content onto a new hard drive. Partition magic is Gparted’s commercial counterpart, and although it does offer a couple more tools, I like gparted better.

6.   Ultra-Edit:

Best text editor ever. It will open almost anything you throw at it.

7.   PsExec/BeyondExec:

Really nifty couple of programs. PsExec was developed by sysinternals, which, like I mentioned earlier, was bought by Microsoft. BeyondExec is based on PsExec. Beyond Exec have a few more utilities than PsExec has, including an interactive SSH-like DOS prompt, but I have found it to be slightly less robust than PsExec.

8.   Angry IP:

I first found Angry IP Scanner while looking for a tool that would help me track down a static IP conflict in the network. Angry IP will ping IP addresses in the range that you determine. Used properly you can determine IP/DNS conflicts, which IP addresses are in use.

9.   OpenVPN:

A fast, powerful, easy to use and install platform independent virtual private network server and client. Best of all, it’s open source, which means it is free. Now someone needs to figure out how to make it a portable client.

10.  VMware Server:

I want to mention VMware as a pose to other virtualization tools like Qemu or Parallels, because I’ve found that, regardless if VMware is not the fastest virtualization tool, regardless if it’s a closed source application, I have found it to be the most reliable and stable virtualization software out there, ideal both to deploy virtual servers on the fly when testing new/unstable software.

Windows 7 vs. Windows 8

Monday, March 17th, 2014

History of Windows 7:

Windows 7 made its official debut to the public on October 22, 2009 as the latest in the 25-year-old line of Microsoft Windows operating systems and as the successor to Windows Vista (which itself had followed Windows XP). Windows 7 was released in conjunction with Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 7’s server counterpart. Enhancements and new features in Windows 7 include multi-touch support, Internet Explorer 8, improved performance and start-up time, Aero Snap, Aero Shake, support for virtual hard disks, a new and improved Windows Media Center, and improved security.

History of Windows 8:

Windows 8 is a completely redesigned operating system that’s been developed from the ground up with touchscreen use in mind as well as near-instant-on capabilities that enable a Windows 8 PC to load and start up in a matter of seconds rather than in minutes. Windows 8 will replace the more traditional Microsoft Windows OS look and feel with a new “Metro” design system interface that first debuted in the Windows Phone 7 mobile operating system. The Metro user interface primarily consists of a “Start screen” made up of “Live Tiles,” which are links to applications and features that are dynamic and update in real time.  Windows 8 supports both x86 PCs and ARM processors.


The main differences are,

o Windows 7 use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Windows 8 is designed to also work with touchscreen computers and tablets.

o When you log in to Windows 8, the first screen you see is the new ‘Start Screen’, also known as ‘Metro’. It still has the familiar ‘Desktop’ as well but we’ll come to that in a minute.

o Instead of Icons, the new Start screen has ‘Tiles’. You click these to open your ‘Apps’ (short for Applications). If you can’t find a particular tile, do a right mouse click in the space at the bottom of the screen and click All Apps.

o In Windows 8 we can use apps and programs. Apps open full screen in Metro; programs open on the Desktop just as they did in Windows 7.

o Additional apps can be downloaded from the Windows Store.

o Windows 8 comes with an antivirus program called ‘Defender’.

o Apps don’t have to be closed by clicking a X in the corner – instead, just press the Windows key on your keyboard to return to the Start Screen. Optionally, an app can be closed by dragging it down from the top of the screen with your mouse, with the left button held down – or with your finger if you are using a touchscreen.

o Windows 8 doesn’t have a Start Menu. Instead, it has a ‘Charms Bar’ (see right) which is where you go to shut down and use other tools such as ‘Search’.

o Whereas in Windows 7 you might have used Windows Live Mail for your email, Windows 8 has a new ‘Mail’ app.

o Instead of having separate contacts for email, Skype and social networking e.g. Facebook, you will find all your contacts together in the new ‘People’ app.

How to Install Multi Server

Friday, March 14th, 2014

How to Install Multi Server?

Sysax Multi Server is a Secure FTP server, SSH2 secure shell server, Telnet server, and HTTPS file server combined into a single Windows program. Its robust, secure, and high-speed software architecture makes it suitable for business and personal file transfer needs. The following easy steps used for installing Sysax Multi Server.

o Verify that the downloaded msi installation package is digitally signed by Codeorigin, LLC.
o Double click on the msi installation package to run the installation wizard.
o Follow on-screen instructions to install Sysax Multi Server.

Sysax Multi Server is compatible with Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows server 2008, is certified for Windows Vista, and runs on all versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system including:

o Windows 95
o Windows 98
o Windows 2000
o Windows ME
o Windows XP
o Windows 2003
o Windows Vista
o Windows Server 2008
o Windows 7
o Windows 8

The minimum hardware required to run Sysax Multi Server are:

o Pentium Class or higher processor
o At least 16MB of free system RAM
o At least 10MB of hard disk space
o Connection to the internet or local network

Also, Sysax Multi Server supports a multi-threaded architecture that scales well on multi-core and multi-processor systems. It lets Windows System Administrators authenticate users using existing windows user accounts or by creating custom accounts, or a combination of both methods. Technical support for it is provided by an online support system. Please visit support to submit a support ticket or to check the status of an existing support ticket.

How to uninstall it?

To uninstall Sysax Multi Server,

o Click the Start button on your computer
o Select the All Programs Menu
o Select Sysax Multi Server
o Click on Uninstall Sysax Multi Server
o Follow on-screen instructions to uninstall Sysax Multi Server


o Click the Start button
o Select Settings
o Select Control Panel
o Select Add/Remove Programs
o Choose Sysax Multi Server from the list
o Click Add/Remove button

Follow on-screen instructions to uninstall Sysax Multi Server.


How Does Public Key Encryption Works

Thursday, March 13th, 2014


Public key :

Public-key refers to a cryptographic mechanism. It has been named public-key to differentiate it from the traditional and more intuitive cryptographic mechanism known as: symmetric-key, shared secret, secret-key and also called private-key. Symmetric-key cryptography is a mechanism by which the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting. In traditional environments, encrypted information is sent between parties that use the same key to encoding and decoding information. This is called symmetric encryption. Public-key on the other hand, introduces another concept involving key pairs: one for encrypting, the other for decrypting.

Public-key is commonly used to identify a cryptographic method that uses an asymmetric-key pair: a public-key and a private-key. Public-key encryption uses that key pair for encryption and decryption. The public-key is made public and is distributed widely and freely. The private-key is never distributed and must be kept secret.

Public key encryption :

Public-key encryption, in which a message is encrypted with a recipient’s public key. The message cannot be decrypted by anyone who does not possess the matching private key, who is thus presumed to be the owner of that key and the person associated with the public key. This is used in an attempt to ensure confidentiality.



A popular implementation of public-key encryption is the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Originally developed by Netscape, SSL is an Internet security protocol used by Internet browsers and Web servers to transmit sensitive information. SSL has become part of an overall security protocol known as Transport Layer Security (TLS).

In your browser, you can tell when you are using a secure protocol, such as TLS, in a couple of different ways. You will notice that the “http” in the address line is replaced with “https,” and you should see a small padlock in the status bar at the bottom of the browser window. When you’re accessing sensitive information, such as an online bank account or a payment transfer service like PayPal or Google Checkout, chances are you’ll see this type of format change and know your information will most likely pass along securely.  TLS and its predecessor SSL make significant use of certificate authorities.



Authentication in a digital setting is a process whereby the receiver of a digital message can be confident of the identity of the sender and/or the integrity of the message. Authentication protocols can be based on either conventional secret-key cryptosystems like DES or on public-key systems like RSA; authentication in public-key systems uses digital signatures. It allows the recipient of information to determine its origin-that is, to confirm the sender’s identity. Public key authentication is an alternative means of identifying yourself to a login server, instead of typing a password. It is more secure and more flexible, but more difficult to set up.  Symmetric key and public key encryption are used, often in conjunction, to provide a variety of security functions for network and information security.